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United States budget process
04-04-2012, 12:16 PM
Post: #1
United States budget process
(Somebody, apparently a troll, started a thread about "President Obama's budget was defeated 414-0" and I was responding to it and when I hit "post thread" I got the message "this thread does not exist" or something like that, and now I see that post is gone and the member banned....but I still want to post my reply! lol So here it is):

Pure, shameful political grandstanding by the GOP. As it was mentioned in that article, the only purpose of that vote was to "try to embarrass him." Then they wonder why Congress is held is such low esteem by the American people?

United States budget process

The process

The President's budget request
Congressional consideration of the federal budget begins once the President of the United States submits a budget request, which is formulated over a period of months with the assistance of the Office of Management and Budget, the largest office within the Executive Office of the President. The budget request includes funding requests for all federal executive departments and independent agencies.

The President submits the budget request each year to Congress for the following fiscal year, as required by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. Current law (31 U.S.C. 1105(a)) requires the President to submit a budget no earlier than the first Monday in January, and no later than the first Monday in February. Typically, Presidents submit budgets on the first Monday in February.

The President's budget request constitutes an extensive proposal of the administration's intended spending and revenue plans for the following fiscal year. The budget proposal includes volumes of supporting information intended to persuade Congress of the necessity and value of the budget provisions. In addition, each federal executive department and independent agency provides additional detail and supporting documentation to Congress on its own funding requests.

Budget resolution
The next step is the drafting of a budget resolution. The United States House Committee on the Budget and the United States Senate Committee on the Budget are responsible for drafting budget resolutions. Following the traditional calendar, by early April both committees finalize their drafts and submit it to their respective floors for consideration and adoption.

A budget resolution, which is one form of a concurrent resolution, binds Congress, but is not a law, and so does not require the President's signature. The budget resolution serves as a blueprint for the actual appropriation process, and provides Congress with some control over the appropriations process. No new spending authority, however, is provided until appropriation bills are enacted.

Once both houses pass the resolution, selected Representatives and Senators negotiate a conference report to reconcile differences between the House and the Senate versions. The conference report, in order to become binding, must be approved by both the House and Senate.

Authorization and appropriations
In general, funds for Federal Government programs must be authorized by an "authorizing committee" through enactment of legislation. Then, through subsequent acts by Congress, budget authority is then appropriated by the Appropriations Committee of the House. In principle, committees with jurisdiction to authorize programs make policy decisions, while the Appropriations Committees decide on funding levels, limited to a program's authorized funding level, though the amount may be any amount less than the limit.

In practice, the separation between policy making and funding, and the division between appropriations and authorization activities are imperfect. Authorizations for many programs have long lapsed, yet still receive appropriated amounts. Other programs that are authorized receive no funds at all. In addition, policy language—that is legislative text changing permanent law—is included in appropriation measures.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Stat...et_process

"Understand that the more deeply you hold your ideals,
the more you are morally obligated to be pragmatic...Idealism without pragmatism
is just a way to flatter your ego." -Barney Frank
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United States budget process #1 - PoliticalTiger - 04-04-2012, 12:16 PM
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